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• Editorial Policy
The Plant Pathology Journal is an international journal devoted to the publication of fundamental and applied investigations on all aspects of plant pathology and their traditional allies. It is published every two months by the Korean Society of Plant Pathology. Manuscripts submitted to the journal must represent reports of original research and must be written in English. Manuscripts are accepted for review provided that no substantial portion of the study has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere and that its submission for publication has been approved by all of the authors or by the institution where the work was carried out. The usual prerequisites for publication will be originality, novelty, clarity, and significance as relevant to a better understanding of plant pathology.
Full-length original Research Articles, Mini-reviews, and Notes be published. The length of Research Articles should exceed more than 4,000 words for the text including title, authors, acknowledgments, references, tables and figure legends. Mini-reviews are solicited by Editor-inChief or Editorial Board Members to provide an incisive examination of the latest advances in a topic relevant to plant pathology. Notes are intended for presentation of brief observations that do not warrant full-length papers. Notes should contain firm data and should not be considered preliminary observations. First report of a new disease on a new host should be presented in a full-length original research article. Symposia abstract supported by the Korean Society of Plant Pathology may be published, as determined by the Editor-in-Chief; such manuscripts are subject to the review process, and same charges applicable as to other articles.
Manuscripts are accepted on the condition that recombinant plasmids, microbe strains, and plant variants developed in the course of the research will be available for distribution to all members of the scientific community, either directly from the investigator(s) or by deposit in national or international collections.

• Research Ethics
All the manuscripts should be prepared under strict observation of research by following research ethics. Scientific misconducts relevant to research activities include fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, including inappropriate authors, in the process of proposing, performing, and publishing the research. "Fabrication" refers to the acts which produce false information without experimental data or findings. "Falsification" refers to the acts which artificially manipulate, modify, omit or change data and results on purpose. "Plagiarism" refers to the acts which pirate others idea, reseach contents and research results without justifiable approvals or quotations. Inappropriate authors mean to include an individual's name as an author who has not contributed significantly to either the research or contents of a paper as a token of gratitude or for reason of honorable treatment, or not to grant authorship to a person who has academically contributed to research contents or results, without right reason. Also, deliberate interference in procedure for the investigation of misconduct in research and deviation from commonly accepted practices within the scientific community are included in unfair research activities.
The Journal follows the Code of Conduct (http:// publicationethics.org/resources/code-conduct) of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (http://publicationethics.org/), and follows the COPE Flowcharts (http://publicationethics.org/resources/ flowcharts) for resolving cases of suspected misconduct. The Plant Pathology Journal will investigate "Plagiarism" by using CrossCheck or help to undertake further necessary action via the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE). If you take notice of any unethical irregularities to The Plant Pathology Journal content, please get in touch with Editorial Office. It is highly recommended that the authors pursue individual "Plagiarism" check and attach the similarity report, before manuscript submission, by using a specific program provided by their own institutes or a free text similarity service. Any scientific misconducts and issues relevant to research ethics will be preliminarily investigated in The Plant Pathology Journal Editorial Office and reported to the "Research Ethics Committee" for The Plant Pathology Journal.
For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, Guidelines (http:// publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) or International standards for editors and authors (http://publicationethics. org/resources/international-standards-for-editors-andauthors) can be applied.

• Authorship
An author is the one who makes a substantial contribution to the overall design and execution of the experiments; therefore, The Plant Pathology Journal considers all authors responsible for the submission. Individuals who provide assistance, e.g., supply strains or reagents or critique the Instructions to Authors paper, need not be listed as authors, but may be recognized in the Acknowledgments section.

• Review Process
All manuscripts are considered to be confidential and are reviewed by members of the Editorial Board, or qualified ad hoc reviewers. Each manuscript receives two simultaneous reviews. When a manuscript is submitted to the Editor-in-Chief, it is given a manuscript number and is assigned to one of the Associate Editors. Each reviewer makes a specific recommendation to the Associate Editor for the manuscript, based on the following aspects that are applicable: importance of the research, originality and novelty of the work, appropriateness of the approach and experimental design, soundness of conclusions and interpretations, relevance of discussion, clarity of presentation, organization of the article, and demonstration of reproducibility. To check a document for possible plagiarism, Manuscript Central allows CrossCheck member journals and publishers to send submissions for comparison to the iThenticate service at any point in the peer review or acceptance workflow. The corresponding author is notified, an average of four weeks after submission, of the Associate Editor's decision to accept, reject, or require revision. When a manuscript is returned to the corresponding author for revision, it should be returned to the Associate Editor within three months; otherwise it may be considered withdrawn.

• Fast-Track Review
A fast-track review of the manuscript is available by authors' request only for Research Articles (not for Notes). To take this advantage, authors must pay non-refundable 1,000,000 Korean won ($1,000) for fast-track review only. If authors take the fast-track review option, the first decision are guaranteed within 10 days. If the fasttracked manuscript would be recommended as "minor or major revision", it will be considered as a general track manuscript. However, once the manuscript is accepted, the manuscript will be published in the following issue of The Plant Pathology Journal. The Editor-in-Chief has the authority to change a fast-track manuscript to a general track manuscript if authors fail or delay to pay the fasttrack review charge. Fast-track review does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript. • Submission of Manuscripts Authors must submit a manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief through The Plant Pathology Journal website (http://www. ppjonline.org) or directly at Manuscript Central (http:// mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ppj). All text, including tables, should be submitted in word processing documents, preferably in Microsoft Word file (.doc), and figures should be uploaded in TIFF, EPS, JPG, or PPT format. Minimum resolutions for figures are as follows: 300 dpi for color and 600 dpi for grayscale or combination art (lettering and images) (maximum 2000×2000 pixels). Each manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter from the corresponding author who outlines the significance of the findings of the manuscript. Authors may recommend individuals to review the manuscript, and they may ask that certain individuals do not review the manuscript. Reason requesting exclusions should be given in the cover letter. • Organization and Format The most desirable plan for the organization of a paper is as follows: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References. If available, Supplementary data files can be uploaded. In the case of data sets too large for inclusion in the manuscript, complete data sets must be uploaded as electronic Supplementary data file. Results and Discussion sections can be combined. The Title Page should contain the title of the manuscript, authors' names, and affiliations and the address of the corresponding author including telephone number, fax number and an e-mail address. The title should be short, but clarity must be observed. Each manuscript should present the results of an independent and cohesive study; thus, numbered series titles are not permitted. Running title should be provided (not to exceed 60 characters including spaces). The Abstract must be a summary of the work from the introduction to the discussion. Limit the abstract to 250 words or fewer. After the abstract, a list of up to five keywords that will be useful for indexing or searching should be included. The Introduction should supply the rationale of the investigation and its relation to other works in the same field, but should not include an extensive review of the literature. The Materials and Methods should be detailed to enable the experiments to be repeated. Refer to published procedures by citing both original description and pertinent published modifications. Do not include extensive details, unless they present a substantially new modification. For commonly used materials and methods, a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methodologies are commonly employed, it is useful to identify the method briefly as well as to cite the reference. Describe new methods completely and give sources of useful chemicals, equipment, or microbial strains. The Results may be organized into subheadings. In this section, describe only the results of the experiments. Reserve extensive interpretation for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the followings: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid presenting essentially similar data in both table and figure form. Also avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. Limit photographs to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables. • The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published works and to the experimental system at hand. It should not contain extensive repetition or summary of the Results section or reiteration of the Introduction. The Discussion may be organized into subheadings. Results and Discussion can be combined. • The Acknowledgments should be brief and should precede the References. The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the Acknowledgment section. The References section must include all relevant sources, and all listed references should be cited in the text by name in alphabetic order and year (e.g., Ahn et al., 2005; Gucinski et al., 1995; Kramer and Boyer, 1995). Only articles that have been published or are in press should be included in the References. Unpublished data or personal communications should be cited as such in the text. Please use the following style in an alphabetical order of the first authors' name. Online references must provide the same information as print references. • Kelly, R. D. and Jones, A. L. 1991. Evaluation of two triazole fungicides for postinfection control of apple scab. Phytopathology 81:735-739. • Proctor, R. H., Hohn, T. M. and McCormick, S. P. 1995. Reduced virulence of Gibberella zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8:593-601. • Kang, B. K., Min, J. Y., Kim, Y. S., Park, S. W., Nguyen, V. B. and Kim, H. T. 2005. Semi-selective medium for monitoring Colletotrichum acutatum causing pepper anthracnose in the field. Res. Plant Dis. 11:21-27 (in Korean). • Debuchy, R. and Turgeon, B. G. 2006. Mating-type structure, evolution, and function in Euascomycetes. In: The Mycota I. Growth, differentiation and sexuality, eds. by U. Kues and R. Fischer, pp. 293-320. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. • Vanderplank, J. E. 1984. Disease resistance in plants. 2nd ed. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, USA. 194 pp. • Yun, S. H. 1998. Molecular genetics and manipulation of pathogenicity and mating determinants in Mycosphaerella zeae-maydis and Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Ph.D. thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. • Brunt, A. A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M. J., Gibbs, A. J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E. J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Plant viruses online: descriptions and lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996. URL http://srs.im.ac. cn/vide/ [21 January 2012]. Supplementary data can be accepted and uploaded to The Plant Pathology Journal online. All supplementary data will be reviewed as part of the normal review process. They should be briefly described in the manuscript with direct reference to each item such as "Supplementary Figure or Table". The file containing supplementary data should be a single pdf file, no larger than 10 MB. After review process is complete and the manuscript is accepted, the supplementary data file will be uploaded online only without galley proof along with the manuscript. Notes. Submit Notes in the same way as regular articles. They receive the same review and they are not published more rapidly than regular articles. They are not considered as preliminary communications. Any manuscript with less than 4,000 words the text including title, authors, acknowledgments, references, tables and figure legends will be considered as a Note, and it and must have an abstract of no more than 150 words. Do not use section headings in the body of the manuscript: Methods, Results, and Discussion should be included in the single section. The number of figures and tables should be also kept to a minimum. The sections of Acknowledgments and References are identical to those of regular articles. Mini-reviews. Mini-reviews are brief summaries (limit of six pages) of developments in fast-moving areas of plant pathology. Mini-reviews are subjected to editorial review. There is no prescribed layout for Mini-reviews, but the tables, and manner of citations should conform to the guidelines for regular research articles. Errata. Errata are reserved for major errors or breaches of ethics. Upload the text of an erratum along with a letter of agreement signed by all the authors. The publication of the erratum will be decided by the editorial committee. • Preparation of the Manuscript Manuscripts should be double-spaced (a minimum of 6 mm between lines) throughout the text including figure legends, table footnotes, and references. The recommended font style is "Times New Roman" and the font size is 12 point. Manuscript pages must have margins of at least 1 inch on all four sides and should have line numbers. Pages should be numbered consecutively with the title page being page 1. Place tables and figure legends after the References section. It is important that manuscripts should be written in clear and grammatically correct English. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage are strongly advised to have their manuscipts checked by a native English speaker prior to submission. Authors may also be requested to undertake professional editing/proofreading services after the initial acceptance of their manuscripts. Each table should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in order of appearance in the text. Type each table double-spaced on a separate page. The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without reference to the text. Explanatory footnotes are acceptable, but should not include detailed descriptions of the experiment. Each figure should be in a finished form suitable for publication. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals, and indicate the top and the authors on the back of each figure. Exact widths for same size reproductions are 88 mm for one column and 183 mm for two columns; maximum height is 250 mm, including caption. Figure legends should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without frequent reference to the text. However, detailed experimental methods must be described in Materials and Methods section. For composites, match photographs for similarity of contrast, background density, and subject content and arrange in a square or rectangle. The cost of color reproduction must be paid by authors. SI units should be used, e.g.: mg, g, km, m, cm, mm, ppm, cpm, Ci (Curie), l (litre), ml, ml, s (second), min (minute), h (hour), mol, etc. The definitive SI website (in English and French) is that of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures at http://www.bipm.org/. • Culture Deposition The Plant Pathology Journal encourages authors to deposit important strains in publicly accessible culture collections and to refer to the collections and strain numbers in the text. • Nucleotide Sequences It is expected that newly assigned GenBank/EMBL/DDJB accession numbers for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data should be included in the manuscript or inserted when the manuscript is modified. • Page Charges and Reprints Page charges are 60,000 Korean won or ＄60 per printed page for members, and 80,000 won or ＄80 for nonmembers. Color page will be free of charge from January 1, 2016. However, if authors request reprints, 100,000 Korean won (or ＄100) will be charged for each color page. Page charges of the manuscript from international authors are$40 per printed page. If the international authors are not financially supported for their manuscripts, a request for charge waiver should be sent to the journal editorial office. Reprints may be ordered in multiples of 50. An order form that includes a table showing the cost of reprints is sent with the proofs to the corresponding author.

• Subscription Information
pISSN 1598-2254
eISSN 2093-9280