The Plant Pathology Journal

Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4. RipAD, RipAO, and RipD impair flg22-induced defense gene expression. Induction of defense marker gene expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue expressing T3E or GFP was monitored 60 min after 100 nM flg22 treatment. Mock treatment (water) in GFP-expressing leaf is included as a negative control. Gene expression was normalized by NbEF1α expression and is shown as the ratio of expression level (%) compared to flg22-treated GFP sample. Data presented are the mean of three independent experiments ± standard error of mean (n = 3). Statistical significance compared to GFP-expressing leaf is indicated by asterisks (Student’s t-test, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001).
Plant Pathol. J. 2020;36:43-53
© 2020 Plant Pathol. J.