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Combined Effect of CO2 and Temperature on Wheat Powdery Mildew Development
Plant Pathol. J. 2018;34:316-326
Published online August 1, 2018
© 2018 The Korean Society of Plant Pathology.

Slavica Matić1*, Maria Alexandra Cucu1, Angelo Garibaldi1, and Maria Lodovica Gullino1,2

1AGROINNOVA – Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-environmental Sector, Università di Torino, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
2Department Agricultural, Forestry and Food Sciences (DISAFA), Università di Torino, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
Correspondence to: Phone) +39-011-6708544, FAX) +39-011-6709307
Received November 3, 2017; Revised February 16, 2018; Accepted March 16, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,provided the original work is properly cited.
The effect of simulated climate changes by applying different temperatures and CO2 levels was investigated in the Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici/wheat pathosystem. Healthy and inoculated plants were exposed in single phytotrons to six CO2+temperature combinations: (1) 450 ppm CO2/18-22°C (ambient CO2 and low temperature), (2) 850 ppm CO2/18-22°C (elevated CO2 and low temperature), (3) 450 ppm CO2/22-26°C (ambient CO2 and medium temperature), (4) 850 ppm CO2/22-26°C (elevated CO2 and medium temperature), (5) 450 ppm CO2/26-30°C (ambient CO2 and high temperature), and (6) 850 ppm CO2/26-30°C (elevated CO2 and high temperature). Powdery mildew disease index, fungal DNA quantity, plant death incidence, plant expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, plant growth parameters, carbohydrate and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Both CO2 and temperature, and their interaction significantly influenced powdery mildew development. The most advantageous conditions for the progress of powdery mildew on wheat were low temperature and ambient CO2. High temperatures inhibited pathogen growth independent of CO2 conditions, and no typical powdery mildew symptoms were observed. Elevated CO2 did not stimulate powdery mildew development, but was detrimental for plant vitality. Similar abundance of three PR transcripts was found, and the level of their expression was different between six phytotron conditions. Real time PCR quantification of Bgt was in line with the disease index results, but this technique succeeded to detect the pathogen also in asymptomatic plants. Overall, future global warming scenarios may limit the development of powdery mildew on wheat in Mediterranean area, unless the pathogen will adapt to higher temperatures.
Keywords : Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, climate changes, disease index, phytotrons, real time PCR

August 2018, 34 (4)
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