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Fusarium Species from Sorghum in Thailand
Plant Pathol. J. 2019;35:301-312
Published online August 1, 2019
© 2019 The Korean Society of Plant Pathology.

Nik M. I. Mohamed Nor1,2 , Baharuddin Salleh2 , and John F. Leslie1*

1Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
2School of Biological Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Correspondence to: Phone) +1-785-532-1363, FAX) +1-785-532-5692
John F. Leslie
Nik M.I. Mohamed Nor
Baharuddin Salleh
Received March 5, 2019; Revised May 2, 2019; Accepted May 15, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal worldwide, spreading from Africa throughout the world. It is particularly important in the semi-arid tropics due to its drought tolerance, and when cultivated in Southeast Asia commonly occurs as a second crop during the dry season. We recovered Fusarium from sorghum in Thailand and found F. proliferatum, F. thapsinum and F. verticillioides most frequently, and intermittent isolates of F. sacchari and F. beomiforme. The relatively high frequencies of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, suggest mycotoxin contamination, particularly fumonisins and moniliformin, should be evaluated. Genetic variation within the three commonly recovered species was characterized with vegetative compatibility, mating type, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), and female fertility. Effective population number (Ne) was highest for F. verticillioides and lowest for F. thapsinum with values based on mating type allele frequencies higher than those based on female fertility. Based on AFLP genetic variation, the F. thapsinum populations were the most closely related, the F. verticillioides populations were the most distantly related, and the F. proliferatum populations were in an intermediate position. The genetic variation observed could result if F. thapsinum is introduced primarily with seed, while F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides could arrive with seed or be carried over from previous crops, e.g., rice or maize, which sorghum is following. Confirmation of species transmission patterns is needed to understand the agricultural systems in which sorghum is grown in Southeast Asia, which are quite different from the systems found in Africa, Australia, India and the Americas.
Keywords : AFLP, effective population number, grain mold, stalk rot, vegetative compatibility

August 2019, 35 (4)
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