Plant Pathol J > Volume 30(1); 2014 > Article
Shin, Kim, Kang, Cho, Park, Okagaki, and Park: A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum


Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed or seedling inoculation assay, and to compare these assays with whole plant resistance of twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars to FHB. The clip-dipping assay consists of cutting off the coleoptiles apex, dipping the coleoptiles apex in conidial suspension, covering in plastic bag for 3 days, and measuring the lengths of lesions 7 days after inoculation. There were significant cultivar differences after inoculation with F. graminearum in seedling relative to the controls. Correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance from adult plants were significant (r=0.45; P<0.05). Results from two other seedling inoculation methods, spraying and pin-point inoculation, were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Single linear correlation was not significant between seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry) and FHB resistance (Type I and Type II), respectively. These results showed that clip-dipping inoculation method using F. graminearum may offer a real possibility of simple, rapid, and reliable for the early screening of FHB resistance in wheat.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease problem on the wheat and barley crops around the world. FHB can be associated with at least seventeen Fusarium species, although most is caused by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae and Microdochium nivale (Parry et al., 1995). FHB significantly reduces wheat grain yield and quality (Bai and Shaner, 1994). Yield losses results from reduction in the number of kernels and shriveled kernels. Grain quality is reduced due to accumulation of trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), which pose a significant risk to human and animal health (McMullen et al., 1997).
The most practical and effective way to protect wheat from FHB is to develop resistant varieties. However, conventional breeding programs have been limited by a lack of effective resistance genes (Bai and Shaner, 1996; Rudd et al., 2001). Two major types of FHB resistance have been classified. Type I resistance is a reduction in initial infection after spray inoculation and Type II resistance is reduced spread of disease symptoms in the spike after point inoculation of a single floret on the wheat head (Schroeder and Christensen, 1963). The Chinese cultivar Sumai 3 exhibits Type II resistance, and is considered the most effective source of resistance, despite lacking complete resistance to FHB (Anderson et al., 2001). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified that confer Type I and Type II resistance (Buerstmayr et al., 2003; Waldron et al., 1999). Wheat breeding programs select for both Type I and Type II resistance to increase FHB (Liu and Anderson, 2003; Rudd et al., 2001).
Unfortunately, the evaluation of FHB resistance has been slow due to the necessity to avoid escapes by evaluating resistance in whole plants over several years and in environ- ment factors (Browne and Cooke, 2004). Therefore, there has been interest in developing in vitro assays to provide methods for prescreening FHB resistance such as: detached leaf assay (Browne et al., 2005; Browne and Cook, 2005b; Browne, 2007; Diamond and Cooke, 1999), seedling resistance (Mesterhazy, 1995; Snijders, 1990), seed germination assay (Browne and Cook, 2005a; Browne, 2007, 2009), coleoptiles assay (Li et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2005) and response to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) (Buerstmayr et al., 1996). The detached leaf assay was successful in identification of an important component of the resistances of FHB in European wheat germplasm and may have utility as a mechanism for discrimination among different resistances in breeding program (Browne et al., 2004). The in vitro evaluation of partial disease resistance (PDR) against FHB has been related to an important component of whole plant FHB resistance in wheat cultivars. Michodochium majus is used in the detached leaf assays to detect leaf symptoms for observing PDR components (incubation period, latent period and lesion length) (Diamond and Cooke, 1999; Browne and Cooke, 2004). Lesion length is one of the components of PDR measured as an indicator of fungal pathogenicity and aggressiveness. PDR components detected in the M. majus detached leaf assay have been correlated to FHB resistance in wheat inoculated with F. culmorum and F. graminearum (Browne and Cooke, 2004; Browne et al., 2005; Browne, 2007; Diamond and Cooke, 1999). FHB resistance in seed germination assay was highly correlated in F. graminearum, F. avenaceaum, F. culmorum, M. majus and Microdochium nivale indicating common resistance between M. Majus and other Fusarium spp. in the in vitro assay (Browne and Cooke, 2005a). Browne (2009) reported that PDR components (incubation periods, longer latent periods and shorter lesion lengths) in the detached leaf assay and higher germination rates in the seed germination assay were related to greater FHB resistance (Type II). However, the exotic wheat germplasms which provide highly effective resistances to FHB resistance do not appear to be detected in the detached leaf (Browne and Cook, 2004; Browne et al., 2005) or seed germination assays (Browne and Cook, 2005a).
There is still a need for a simple, rapid and reliable pre-screening method for FHB resistance. The objectives of this work were to develop alternative seedling stage screening methods and evaluate the use of a rapid seedling assay for FHB resistance on twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars.

Materials and Methods

Plant materials

Twenty-nine winter wheat cultivars developed in Korea were used for these experiments. The Korean cultivars were obtained from the National Institute of Crop Science, RDA.

Evaluation of FHB resistance in the greenhouse

FHB resistance (Type I and Type II) was evaluated in greenhouses at the National Institute of Crop Science, at Iksan. Seeds of wheat cultivars were surface-sterilized in 1% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite, rinsed three times in sterile distilled water, and placed on sterile moist filter paper in a Petri dish. Seeds were vernalized for 3 weeks at 4°C prior to germination. After vernalization, seedlings were planted into Sunshine Mix #1 (SunGro, Canada) in 15 cm round plastic pots in a greenhouse. Twenty seeds were planted for each line; each pot contained five seeds. To evaluate Type II resistance, a single central floret of the spikelet of the main stem was inoculated at anthesis with 10 μl of a macroconidial spore suspension (4×104 conidia/ml) of F. graminearum using a syringe. Wheat heads were covered with plastic bags for 3 days to maintain moisture. FHB disease severity was assessed as the percentage of spikelets on the inoculated spikes with visually detectable disease symptoms at 20 days after inoculation. Type I resistance was evaluated by spraying wheat with a macroconidial suspension (4×104 conidia/ml). Pots were covered in plastic cylinder for 3 days. The FHB disease severity was evaluated visually 20 days after the initial inoculation. Disease severity was measured as the percentage of symptomatic spikelets per spike.

Fusarium inoculums

Wheat spikes with head blight symptoms were collected from the wheat fields in Jeonbuk province in Korea during the spring 2009. Diseased wheat seeds were sterilized in 4% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite for 1 min, rinsed in sterile water for 2 min, and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) selective medium. The culture plates were incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Following mycelia growth, fungal plugs were transferred into carnation leaf agar (CLA) and plates were incubated under UV light at 25°C to induce spore formation (Leslie and Summerell, 2006). Conidia were washed with sterile water, and diluted to a concentration of 4×104 conidia/ml. To induce adhesion and spore germination, the inoculum contained 5.0% sucrose and 0.05% Silwet L-77 (Lehle Seeds, Round Rock, TX, USA). Single-spore culture of F. graminearum was used for in this study.

Seed germination assay

Two method of inoculation, soaking and soak-dry were compared through seed germination assay (Table 1). In soaking experiment, thirty seeds of wheat cultivars were surface-sterilized in 1% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite and rinsed in sterile distilled water for three times. Seeds were imbibed in 15 ml of a 4×104 conidia/ml with F. graminearum for 15 min. Controls were imbibed with sterile distilled water only. Seeds were then plated onto sterile moist filter paper in Petri dishes (10 seeds per Petri dish) at 15°C in a growth chamber with a 12/12 light/dark cycle. After one day, the seeds were planted in the greenhouse with each pot containing five seeds. The experiment was repeated twice. The number of seeds germinated was recorded as seedlings with coleoptiles length >1 cm at 7 days after inoculation. The number of germinating seeds inoculated with F. graminearum was divided by the number of germinated control seeds, and the results from two experiments were averaged. In soak-dry experiments, thirty seeds of wheat cultivars were sterilized and rinsed three times in distilled water. Seeds were imbibed in 15 ml of a F. graminearum suspension (4×104 conidia/ml). Controls were imbibed with sterile distilled water only. After 15 min excess conidia suspension was decanted off and the seeds were dried using filter paper. The seeds were plated onto sterile moist filter paper in Petri dishes and placed in a growth chamber. The experiment was repeated twice. The fraction of seeds germinating was calculated as described above.

Seedling inoculation assay

Three methods of inoculation, pin-point, foliar-spraying, and clip-dipping were compared through seedling assay (Table 1). In pin-point experiments, wheat seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on a stack of filter paper saturated with sterile distilled water. Three day old seedling stems (about 2-3 cm) were wounded by pinpoint and inoculated with 10 ul of a suspension of conidia (4×104 conidia/ml). Controls were inoculated with sterile distilled water only. Twenty seedlings were inoculated and grown in a growth chamber under 12 h photoperiod cycle. The lengths of brown lesions on diseased stems were measured 7 days post inoculation.
For foliar-spraying and clip-dipping assays, 20 seeds of each cultivars were imbibed in a letter envelop (10×5 cm, length×height) and placed in plastic basket (15×8×10 cm, length×width×height) which has small hole can through the water (see attached picture). These baskets were placed in plastic containers (60×40×14 cm) with enough water for seed germination. 10 day old seedlings were inoculated with a conidia suspension of F. graminearum by foliar-spraying or clip-dipping methods. In foliar-spray experiments, a conidial suspension (4×104 conidia/ml) was sprayed on both sides of leaves using an atomizer. Inoculated plants were placed in a moist chamber at 25°C for 3 days and then returned to greenhouse for disease evaluation. Controls were sprayed with sterile distilled water only. The disease incidence was determined as the percentage of infected seedlings with visually necrotic lesion and/or sporulation of fungal disease symptoms. In clip-dipping experiments, the tip of the coleoptiles were cutoff and then dipped in 20 ml of a suspension of conidia (4×104 conidia/ml) for 3 times. Inoculated seedlings were covered in plastic bag to maintain high humidity for 3 days and then moved to greenhouse for disease evaluation. Controls were dipped with sterile distilled water only. Lesions on the inoculated leaves were measured at 7 days post inoculation.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis of heading date, stem length and grain morphologies were done using SAS software (SAS Institute, NC, USA) using Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Correlations between FHB resistances (Type I and Type II) and seedling assays (seed germination and seedling inoculation assay) were estimated using SAS CORR procedure.


Evaluation of FHB resistance (Type I and Type II)

Twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars were evaluated for Type I and Type II FHB resistance (Table 2). Spikes were spray inoculated of conidial suspension to test for Type I resistance, or the central spikelet of each plant was point inoculated with F. graminearum to test for Type II resistance. The symptoms of FHB disease showed after 7 days post inoculation, and disease resistance was scored two weeks later. For Type I FHB resistance, the fraction of plants showing disease symptoms ranged from 29.8% to 77.2% and for Type II resistance from 17.3% to 100%. Namhae, Dabun, Geuru, Sukang and Gobun were the most resistant cultivars, and Seaeol, Jopoom, and Alchan were the most susceptible cultivars for Type II resistance (Table 2). Although there was no significant correlation between FHB severity for Type I and Type II evaluation, Namhae and Dabun showed a high level of FHB resistance (Type I and Type II).

Seed germination assay

Seed germination rates, after imbibing seeds with conidial suspensions of F. graminearum, showed large variations between cultivars (Table 3). Overall, exposure to F. graminearum reduced mean seed germination 65.5% relative to the water controls. The most resistant cultivars, those with the greatest germination as a percentage of water control from both soaking and soak-dry assays, were Dahong, Jonong, Gobun, and Baekjoong. Uri, Tapdong, Hanbaek and Jokyung were amongst the more susceptible cultivars. There was not a statistically significant correlation between either seed germination assay with FHB resistance (Type I or Type II). Correlation coefficients between the mean data from the two seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry) and FHB Type II resistance were significant (r = −0.37; P < 0.05).

Seedling inoculation assay

Seedlings inoculated with F. graminearum conidia by spraying, pin-point and clip-dipping showed clear disease symptoms within a few days after inoculation (Table 4). Stems and coleoptiles began to turn brown 3 days post inoculation and brown lesions developed by 7 days to varying degrees as a results of the seedling resistance. Brown lesions started from the pin-point area and cut tips of coleoptiles inoculated with soaked in conidial suspension (Fig. 1). Resistance in the clip-dipping assay was determined by the length of the lesions. The average lesion lengths across the twenty-nine cultivars for clip-dipping ranged from 0.9 cm to 4.2 cm (Table 4). Namhae, Gobun, Sukang and Milseong were amongst the most resistant for clip-dipping inoculation experiment. The more susceptible cultivars Alchan, Geuru and Jonong showed an average lesion length of 4.2 cm, 3.6 cm, and 3.2 cm, respectively. Correlation between pin-point and Type II resistance were not significant. However, correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance was significant (r = 0.45; P < 0.05) (Fig. 2).


Developing FHB resistant varieties of wheat is the most practical approach for minimizing economic losses from this disease. Type I resistance is resistance to the initial infection, and it is assayed by inoculating wheat spikes. FHB Type II resistance is defined as resistance to the spread of the pathogen within the spike, and is determined by point inoculation of a single spikelet (Schroeder and Christensen, 1963). In addition to measuring visual symptoms of infection on spikes, the levels of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may also be used to measure resistance to FHB (Mesterhazy et al., 1999). Field and greenhouse screening has limitations associated with time, space, and environmental factors for evaluating FHB resistance. In this study, we evaluated seed and seedling assays for rapid and mass screening of Korean wheat cultivars for resistance to FHB.
Seed germination and seedling inoculation assay was selected on basis of their similarity to adult plant spike inoculation using spraying and point inoculation assays for Type I and Type II resistance. Using point inoculation (Type II) on adult spikes, five cultivars (Namhae, Dabun, Geuru, Sukang and Gobun) showed resistance to F. gramineariu with less than 25% FHB. Seedling inoculation assays for Type II resistance (pin-point and clip-dipping) detected resistance in four of the five cultivars (Namhae, Dabun, Sukang and Gobun). Pin-point and cut-dipping seedling inoculation assays showed similar results for the different cultivars, however the clip-dipping assay permitted greater numbers of cultivars to be screened. Therefore, it has been proposed that cut-dipping inoculation assay was an efficient method for seedling stage compared to FHB resistance.
Seed germination assays exhibited higher FHB incidence compare to spike inoculation method, however results from these assays were poorly correlated with the degree of resistance in adult plants. Similarly, FHB resistance determined by spray inoculation of seedlings was also poorly correlated with resistance in adult plants. Thus, these assays both were not proper methods to selection for FHB resistance.
Detached leaf assay have been used primarily for screen for FHB in wheat cultivars. In these assays, partial disease resistance (PDR) components measured after exposure to Fusarium spp. and Microdochium majus included incubation period, latent period and lesion length (Diamond and Cooke, 1999; Browne and Cooke, 2004; Browne, 2007). PDR components detected in the M. majus detached leaf assay have been correlated to FHB in wheat inoculated with F. graminearum. Using the detached-leaf assay, whole-plant FHB resistance has related to an important PDR component in commercially grown European wheat cultivars and the 30 USA soft red winter wheat entries in the 2002 Uniform Southern FHB Nursery (Browne and Cook, 2004; Browne et al., 2005; Diamond and Cook, 1999). In addition, resistance determined in vitro using a seed-germination assay correlated with whole-plant FHB resistance ratings among European wheat cultivars. The PDR component incubation period was highly related to FHB disease incidence while resistance detached in the seed germination assay related to a greater decline in the level of FDK and a smaller reduction in DON than would be expected from the reduction in FHB diseases on the wheat spike (Browne, 2007). Browne (2009) showed that higher germination rates in the seed germination were greater FHB resistance measured by single point inoculation strongly related to resistance assessed in spike (Type II). In this report, FHB resistance determined by seed soaking or soak-dry methods did not predict Type I resistance or Type II resistance in adult plants. The average of germination rate both the soaking and soak-dry experiments were negatively related with Type II resistance in Korean wheat cultivars.
Clip-dipping inoculation promotes the interaction between wheat tissues and fungus. The coleoptiles tips are removed, allowing fungi to penetrate plant tissues. Thus, disease development by pathogenic fungi with wounding is manifested through appearance of symptoms such as discolored, necrotic area on the affected coleoptiles tips. FHB disease symptom showed that wheat cultivars with resulted in various lesion lengths in a growth chamber under strictly controlled conditions. Wu et al. (2005) observed that disease lesion length on coleoptiles inoculation of wheat with F. graminearum isolates was significantly correlated with disease development on adult plants of the same genotype under field conditions. Our results show that the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation was also significant correlated to FHB Type II resistance (r = 0.45; P < 0.05), however results were not significantly correlated with type I resistance in the field condition. It has been proposed that the individual PDR components not only influence the total level of resistance but also have a variable individual influence on disease development parameters.
This study was conducted to develop an easy seedling method to test large numbers of wheat cultivars for FHB resistance. The clip-dipping inoculation assay is a simple method to use for the FHB severity. It also proved to be a high-throughput method and reliable pre-screening method for FHB resistance. Using this technique, it should be possible to screen large populations during seedling stage in Korean wheat breeding programs, and develop wheat cultivars with improved FHB resistance.


This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ008391)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Fig. 1.
Clip-dipping inoculation assay using wheat seedling inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. (A) Wheat seedling grown in the letter envelops and then removed the coleoptiles for inoculation. (B) The disease symptoms on the wheat coleoptiles 7 days after inoculation (left: inoculated with water control, right: inoculated with F. graminearum). (C) Various length of lesion after inoculation (Control, low, medium, high, respectively).
Fig. 2.
Single linear correlation between clip-dipping inoculation assay and spraying inoculation (Type I) (A) and point inoculation (Type II) (B) with F. graminearum.
Table 1.
Screen method of seeds germination and seedlings inoculated in Fusarium graminearum
Inoculation method Treatment Research methodology
Seed Soaking Sowing after imbibing seeds with conidial suspension (petridish/pot) Germination (%)
Soak-dry Sowing after imbibing seeds with conidial suspension and dry Germination (%)

Seedling Spraying Spray inoculation in 10 days old seedling FHB incidence (%)
Pin-point Pin-point wounding inoculation after germination (5 days) FHB incidence (%)
Clip-dipping Inoculation after seedling leaf-cutting and dipping (3 days) Lesion length (cm)
Table 2.
Percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) severity in the greenhouse evaluation for Type I and Type II resistance
Cultivars Pedigree FHB severity (%)
Spraying inoculation (Type I) Point inoculation (Type II)
Ol Norin72/Norin12 54.9 66.0
Geuru Strampelli//69D-3607/Chokwang 52.5 22.8
Dahong Norin72/Wonkwang 36.2 55.1
Chungkye Norin4/Sharbati-Sonora 45.1 39.5
Eunpa Chukoku81/Tob-CNO//Yuksung3///Suwon185 44.8 57.2
Tapdong Chukoku81//Shinkwang/Toropi 74.6 42.9
Namhae Ol/Calidad 43.8 17.3
Uri Geuru/Ol 36.7 59.3
Olgeuru Geuru‘S'/Chokwang//Seohae143 49.0 62.5
Alchan Suwon210/Tapdong 68.1 95.6
Gobun Eunpa/Tapdong//Eunpa/Shannung6521 67.9 24.1
Keumkang Geuru‘S'/Kanto75//Eunpa 49.4 72.8
Seodun Geuru/Genaro81 29.8 42.8
Saeol Sirogane//Norin43/Sonalika 57.2 100.0
Jinpoom Geuru/Genaro81 32.1 51.2
Milseong Norin43/Sonalika 67.6 78.8
Joeun Eunpa/Suwon242 74.3 51.5
Anbaek Sae/Geuru 37.1 36.8
Jopoom SW88416-B-0/SW89277 48.0 100.0
Shinmichal Olgeuru//Kanto107/Baihuo 77.2 60.4
Jonong Suwon234/SW80199-B-Y14-0 55.7 63.9
Jokyung Seri82/Keumkang 54.0 81.8
Younbaek Keumkang/Tapdong 64.9 48.3
Shinmichal1 Alchan/Kanto107//Baihuo 61.0 31.3
Dabun Keumkang/SW97027 44.1 19.3
Baekjoong Keumkang/Olgeuru 58.3 34.2
Jeokjoong Keumkang/Tapdong 54.2 48.6
Sukang Suwon266/Asakaje 59.6 24.4
Hanbaek Shann7859/Keumkang//Guamuehill 43.4 48.8
Mean 53.1 53.0
Table 3.
Disease reactions of seed germination assay inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Cultivars Seed germination assay
Soaking (%) Soak-dry (%) Meana
Ol 45.5 71.4 58.4
Geuru 80.0 57.1 68.6
Dahong 90.5 100.0 95.2
Chungkye 73.7 68.4 71.1
Eunpa 50.0 64.7 57.4
Tapdong 22.7 72.7 47.7
Namhae 55.5 100.0 77.8
Uri 33.3 40.0 36.7
Olgeuru 46.2 91.7 68.9
Alchan 26.1 92.9 59.5
Gobun 69.6 93.3 81.4
Keumkang 33.3 81.3 57.3
Seodun 55.6 90.9 73.2
Saeol 52.6 66.7 59.6
Jinpoom 68.0 78.6 73.3
Milseong 71.4 66.7 69.0
Joeun 84.6 63.2 73.9
Anbaek 73.9 63.6 68.8
Jopoom 55.6 50.0 52.8
Shinmichal 61.5 64.7 63.1
Jonong 70.8 93.3 82.1
Jokyung 66.7 35.3 51.0
Younbaek 60.9 58.8 59.8
Shinmichal1 76.5 50.0 63.2
Dabun 39.3 93.3 66.3
Baekjoong 73.1 78.6 75.8
Jeokjoong 72.7 66.7 69.7
Sukang 71.4 64.3 67.9
Hanbaek 61.1 40.0 50.6
Mean 60.1 71.0

a the mean data of seed germination assay both soaking and soak-dry

Table 4.
Disease reactions of seedling assay inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Cultivars Seedling inoculation assay
Spraying (%) Pin-point (%) Clip-dipping (cm)
Ol 5.0 23.3 2.2±0.7
Geuru 45.5 48.0 3.6±1.3
Dahong 50.0 10.0 2.2±0.6
Chungkye 42.1 23.3 2.2±1.0
Eunpa 66.7 43.3 3.0±1.0
Tapdong 12.5 33.3 1.6±0.6
Namhae 25.0 10.0 0.9±0.3
Uri 46.7 10.0 2.1±1.0
Olgeuru 53.3 15.0 2.2±0.5
Alchan 10.5 23.3 4.2±1.5
Gobun 11.8 11.1 1.0±0.6
Keumkang 50.0 18.5 2.7±0.7
Seodun 100.0 10.0 2.0±0.5
Saeol 75.0 25.0 3.0±1.1
Jinpoom 5.9 18.5 2.1±0.7
Milseong 30.0 14.8 1.3±0.3
Joeun 85.7 63.3 2.2±1.4
Anbaek 50.0 50.0 2.1±1.4
Jopoom 26.3 23.1 2.2±0.5
Shinmichal 11.8 31.0 1.9±0.4
Jonong 25.0 50.0 3.2±1.7
Jokyung 40.0 27.6 2.4±0.7
Younbaek 90.0 32.0 2.0±0.9
Shinmichal1 - 36.4 1.8±0.8
Dabun 23.5 18.5 1.9±1.0
Baekjoong - 44.0 2.2±0.4
Jeokjoong - 42.9 2.6±0.5
Sukang - 19.2 1.1±0.5
Hanbaek - 33.3 2.8±1.0
Mean 23.5 27.9 2.2


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