Plant Pathol J > Volume 27(3); 2011 > Article
The Plant Pathology Journal 2011;27(3):266-271.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.266    Published online September 30, 2011.
Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination from an Abandoned Mine on Tomato Growth and Root-knot Nematode Development
Byeong Yong Park, Jae Kook Lee, Hee Myong Ro, Young Ho Kim
Abstract
Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal content of soils located along the drainage way of an abandoned mine at Busan, Korea (35o31`N, 129o22`E) (contaminated soil; CS) and uncontaminated soils (50- 70 m apart from the drainage way) (NS) were examined. Growth of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicom cv. Rutgers) in CS and NS, development of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) as root-knot gall formation on tomato plants, and non-parasitic nematode populations in soil were also examined. Growth of tomato plants, root-knot gall formation, and non-parasitic nematode populations were significantly reduced in CS with higher As content, lower pH, higher electrical conductivity (EC), and lower available phosphate (av. P2O5) than in NS. None of the other physicochemical characters examined differed significantly between CS and NS (low and no significance) and were above or below the critical levels detrimental to plant growth and nematode development, suggesting that As may be the primary hazardous heavy metal in CS. The toxicity of As might be enhanced at low pH in CS because exchangeable forms of some heavy metals increase with the decrease of soil pH. The heavy metals, especially As, may have contributed to increasing EC and decreasing av. P2O5. Therefore, the effects of mine drainage contamination from the abandoned mine were derived primarily from contamination by heavy metals such as As. These may have been enhanced in toxicity (solubility) by the lowered pH, increased soil salinity (EC) and decreased av. P2O5. Our results suggest synergistic adverse effects on the plant and the nematode by decreasing osmotic potential and nutrient availability.
Key Words: gall formation, heavy metals, Solanum lycopersicum, Meloidogyne incognita, mine drainage
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