The Plant Pathology Journal 2012;28(3):227-238.
Published online September 30, 2012.
Mini-Reviews : The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Transduction Pathways in Alternaria Species
Hou Juan Xu, Xiao Xue Xu, Yu Jun Wang, Vivek K. Bajpai, Li Sha Huang, Yong Fang Chen, Kwang Hyun Baek
Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signaling modules in the eukaryotic cells. They are involved in many major cell processes in fungi such as stress responses, vegetative growth, pathogenicity, secondary metabolism and cell wall integrity. In this review, we summarized the advances of research on the MAPK signaling pathways in Alternaria species. As major phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria species reduce crop production. In contrast to the five MAPK pathways known in yeast, only three MAPK pathways as Fus3/Kss1-type, Hog1-type, and Slt2-type have been characterized in Alternaria. The Fus3/Kss1-type MAPK pathway participates in regulation of vegetative growth, conidiation, production of some cell-wall-degrading enzymes and pathogenicity. The Hog1-type pathway is involved in osmotic and oxidative stress, fungicides susceptibility and pathogenicity. The Slt2-type MAP kinases play an important role on maintaining cell wall integrity, pathogenicity and conidiation. Although recent advances on the MAPK pathways in Alternaria spp. reveal many important features on the pathogenicity, there are many unsolved problems regarding to the unknown MAP kinase cascade components and network among other major signal transduction. Considering the economic loss induced by Alternaria spp., more researches on the MAPK pathways will need to control the Alternaria diseases.
Key Words: Alternaria species, mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK, pathogenicity, signal transduction
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